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If city bombing ever has a second act, we are all toast.

The Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings were militarily and politically irrelevant. They were always going to be “demonstrations,” with the nascent nuclear weapons industry as the prime beneficiary. The only question was who would be under the bombs when they were demonstrated. The answer, of course, was the Japanese cities that had been deliberately spared in order to play that role.

says:
March 6, 2015 at 2:48 pm

What I find interesting, though, is that it is not clear that Stimson really in his gut accepted non-precision city bombing. Which is a separate issue, but I like to bring it up whenever it is asserted that everyone had accepted the morality of strategic bombing — Stimson himself warned Truman that the US could “get the reputation of outdoing Hitler in atrocities” if it kept up a strategy like it did at Tokyo.

As for them being military “demonstrations,” I agree. And this is the terms in which they targeting planners talked about them : “It was agreed that psychological factors in the target selection were of great importance. Two aspects of this are (1) obtaining the greatest psychological effect against Japan and (2) making the initial use sufficiently spectacular for the importance of the weapon to be internationally recognized when publicity on it is released.”

says:
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Without doing too much research, I can’t find an example of a new weapon that was demonstrated first, prior to actual use. Poison gas, aerial bombardment, rocket weapons, jet planes, etc., all of these were introduced into warfare without much consideration of a demonstration.

And as you mention, would it have done any good? I don’t think so. Even if the Germans had first killed a thousand farm animals in an open field with chlorine, the British and French would not have agreed to a cease-fire.

says:
March 6, 2015 at 3:30 pm

“How could that not look like pure blackmail, pure terrorism?”

But isn’t that a part of how war works? You pound the enemy and then ask for unconditional surrender while promising to continue the destruction if the answer is no. I really believe that coercion, or blackmail, is a fundamental part of war.

I have met many people who think the problem is that the lack of a demonstration is equivalent to a sneak attack without a declaration of war; like the attack on Port Arthur prior to the receipt of a declaration or the attack on Pearl Harbor prior to a receipt of a declaration…those darn Japanese, they are really good at that! It always leads to righteous indignation and venomous hate. That is how the people I have encountered who feel strongly that even if a demonstration did not work should have still been tried.

Conditions

Conditions are nested elements of the Baffin Mens Tractor Industrial Rubber Boot Black/Red Ir2Gk
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tasks. There are core conditions and custom conditions. Custom conditions are described in Custom Conditions . Core Conditions are described below.

These are the nested elements that can be used as conditions in the <condition> and <waitfor> tasks.

The <not> element expects exactly one other condition to be nested into this element, negating the result of the condition. It doesn't have any attributes and accepts all nested elements of the condition task as nested elements as well.

The <and> element doesn't have any attributes and accepts an arbitrary number of conditions as nested elements—all nested elements of the condition task are supported. This condition is true if all of its contained conditions are, conditions will be evaluated in the order they have been specified in the build file.

The <and> condition has the same shortcut semantics as the Java operator, as soon as one of the nested conditions is false, no other condition will be evaluated.

The <or> element doesn't have any attributes and accepts an arbitrary number of conditions as nested elements—all nested elements of the condition task are supported. This condition is true if at least one of its contained conditions is, conditions will be evaluated in the order they have been specified in the build file.

The <or> condition has the same shortcut semantics as the Java || operator, as soon as one of the nested conditions is true, no other condition will be evaluated.

The <xor> element performs an exclusive or on all nested elements, similar to the ^ operator in Java. It only evaluates to true if an odd number of nested conditions are true. There is no shortcutting of evaluation, unlike the <and> and <or> tests. It doesn't have any attributes and accepts all nested elements of the condition task as nested elements as well.

This condition is identical to the Oboz Firebrand II BDRY Hiking Shoe Mens Gray 11 Earth DotTd9qJ
task, all attributes and nested elements of that task are supported, the property and value attributes are redundant and will be ignored.

This condition is identical to the Uptodate task, all attributes and nested elements of that task are supported, the property and value attributes are redundant and will be ignored.

Test whether the current operating system is of a given type. Each defined attribute is tested and the result is true only if all the tests succeed.

Supported values for the family attribute are:

Sasaki argued that Japanese are trained to be cooperative rather than autonomous and independent since childhood and that acting different from family members or neighbors may require a significant amount of energy and result in psychological distress, such as uneasiness and guilt. The mentality of "Follow your child when you grow old" in Japanese society has been suggested, and the elderly sometimes entrust decisions about their healthcare to family members. Families of elderly patients together with healthcare professionals might naturally take the initiative regarding healthcare decisions for the patient without their explicit consent. Thus, a family-centered or group-centered approach has been predominant in Japanese clinical settings[ 16 ]. Patience and modesty are considered virtues, and disobedience to group decisions is considered unacceptable.

Tamura also discussed dominant problematic mentalities. In Japanese society, one often feels the need to consider family members’ thoughts and feelings when making a decision. There is often internal or external pressure to prioritize family members’ opinions over those of the individual. Even when the family says that it is the person’s decision, he or she may still feel that the feelings of other family members should be prioritized[ Chinese Laundry Womens Posh Toe Ring Pom Pom Sandal Cognac Leather zYK9a
]. Ignoring one’s true desire is sometimes considered a virtue in Japan. From childhood, people are taught to respect others, especially parents, teachers, authorities, and older people[ 17 ]. A follow-the-crowd mentality and unassertiveness are often observed among Japanese people, as well as a tendency to eschew free thinking and discussion regarding individuals, hierarchy, and conventionalism at the workplace[ fereshte Womens Rivet Canvas Lace Up High Heel Fashion Sneakers Ankle Boots White vUbaE
].

The literature view suggests the presence of traditional norms, such as interdependence, entrusting others, and filial duties[ French Sole FS/NY Womens Gumdrop Wedge Pump Brown Cartizze qoUQN5OD3H
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]. The well-known Japanese psychiatrist Doi argued that Japanese tend to expect others to consider what they need and unconsciously require others to act in their best interest[ 20 ]. A commentator claimed that the predominantly Japanese idea to entrust important decisions to others could have its ideological origin in Buddhism[ IDIFU Womens Classic Pointed Toe Mid Kitten Heels Slip On Pumps With Bows Black LY5fh71
]. Therefore, the Japanese mental tendency pointed out by Doi could result in patients depending on their physicians and other healthcare professionals when decisions must be made regarding medical care. However, when things go wrong, patients and their families may criticize healthcare professionals and accuse them of being solely responsible for the poor outcome.

Despite the strong influence of Western cultures, imported rules and concepts from the West may change in their implications, functions, and even goals without changing their appearances and thus become Japanesque in Japanese society[ 11 , 12 ]. Even though the names of concepts and principles may remain the same, they are likely to be similar yet different, and this likely reflects the strong, mixed influence of Shintoism, Buddhism, and Confucianism.

View this table:
Table 2

Percentages of lymphocyte subpopulations within the effusions

PBMC of patients with nonmalignant ( = 17) and malignant ( = 11) ascites or pleural effusion ( = 16) were stained using conjugated monoclonal antibodies against CD3, CD4, CD8, CD56, and CD19 and were analyzed using four-color flow cytometry. Data represent the mean percentage of cells expressing the given markers and SE in brackets. values indicate significant differences in patients with malignant effusions when compared with patients with nonmalignant effusions.

Patients with malignant pleural effusions had higher percentages of presumably Th2-type CCR4 + CD4+ T cells and more noneffector type CD62L+ CD8 + T cells than patients with nonmalignant effusions (Table 3) PUMA Mens Tazon 6 Mesh Dotd CrossTrainer Shoe Asphalt/Puma Silver jtCc7HjB
. In addition, the same patients showed elevated percentages of effusion-infiltrating CD45RA+CCR7+ naïve CD8 + and CD45RA-CCR7+ central memory CD4 + and CD8 + T cells within their effusion (Table 4) fereshte Womens Fashion Closed Toe Platform Super High Heel Pump Wedding Shoes No86 19cmgolden cNebOfbcn
. In marked contrast, patients with malignant pleural effusions evidenced dramatically reduced levels of terminally differentiated CD45RA+CCR7− CD4 + T cells, and both patient groups with cancer had markedly lower levels of effector-type CD45RA+CCR7− CD8 + T cells than patients with nonmalignant peritoneal effusions.

View this table:
Table 3

Percentages of T cells expressing different homing receptors within the effusions

Effusion-infiltrating lymphocytes of patients with nonmalignant ( = 17) and malignant ( = 11) ascites or pleural effusion ( = 15) were stained using conjugated monoclonal antibodies against CD3, CD4, and CD8, and the given homing receptor. Events were analyzed using flow cytometry a combination of a morphological lymphocyte gate and a gate for CD3+CD4+ or CD3+CD8+ cells. Results represent the mean percentage of CD4+ or CD8+ T cells expressing the given marker and SE in brackets. values indicate significant differences in patients with malignant effusions when compared to patients with nonmalignant effusions.

View this table:
Table 4

Percentages of naïve/memory T-cell subtypes within the effusions

PBMC of patients with nonmalignant ( = 17) and malignant ( = 11) ascites, or pleural effusion ( = 15) were stained using conjugated monoclonal antibodies against CD3, CD4, CD8, CD45RA, and CCR7. A FACS analysis was performed using a combination of a morphological lymphocyte gate and a gate for CD3+CD4+ or CD3+CD8+ cells. Results represent the mean percentage of CD4+ or CD8+ T cells expressing the combination CD45RA and CCR7 defining the memory/effector subsets. Data represent mean values and SE in brackets. values indicate significant differences in patients with malignant effusions when compared to patients with nonmalignant effusions.

Malignant Effusions Do Not Contain Higher Percentages of CD4CD25 Regulatory T Cells.

CD4 T cells coexpressing the IL-2 receptor α chain (CD25) have been suggested recently to represent suppressor T lymphocytes (16) . We assessed the number of CD25+ Th cells infiltrating the effusions of patients with malignant and nonmalignant disease. There were no significant differences in the percentages of effusion-associated CD4 T cells expressing CD25 between the three groups (data not shown).

A decreased or absent expression of the signal-transducing ζ chain in CD4 + or CD8 + T cells as well as in NK cells has been described in patients with various malignancies, and it has been suggested that this phenomenon might be responsible for functional alterations of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and TAL in these patients (17) . We examined the intracellular expression of the TCR ζ chain in the peripheral and the effusion-associated T cells of our patients. Nearly 100% of all CD4 + and CD8 + T cells in the peripheral blood of all three patient groups expressed the TCR ζ chain (Fig. 5) . The vast majority of T cells infiltrating the malignant or nonmalignant effusions also expressed this signal-transducing molecule. However, in our patients with cirrhosis of the liver, slightly fewer effusion-associated CD4 + and CD8 + T cells were positive for the TCR ζ chain (Fig. 5) .

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  • Michelle Wetzler

    Solutions Architect @ Twilio

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